Abu’l-Fath Jalal-ud-din Muhammad Akbar
Akbar was the son of Humayun and Hamida Banu Begum and he was born on 15 October 1542 and his father was the king of Mughal emperor. Babur was the founder of Mughal dynasty in India and he was the grandfather of Akbar. in 1556 after the death of Humayun his 14-year-old son crowned as the new Mughal Emperor with assistance Bairam Khan, who worked as a regent. Hemu occupied Delhi and Agra immediately which was reoccupied by Bairam Khan defeating Hemu in the Second battle of Panipat in 1556 and Bairam Khan became very powerful. When Akbar grew up to look after the Mughal emperor himself, he sent Bairam Khan on a pilgrimage to Mecca. He was liberal and respected all religions and he ends jizya, a tax levied on non-Muslim citizens and it was unjust practice against the Hindus. He abolished pilgrim tax and his acceptance of all religious faith and practices was beneficial to control such a vast kingdom where people followed different religions.
Akbar Extended His Emperor
- Captured Gwalior, Ajmer and Jaunpur in 1558
- Ranthambore in 1569.
- Military campaigns in Gujarat, East Bihar, and Orissa.
- North West and the Deccan were conquered in 1585-1605.
- Qandhar, Kabul, and Kashmir were annexed.
Hence Akbar controlled entire India and extended his empire through conquests and marriage alliances. he tried to befriend the Rajputs, but the brave king of Mewar, Maharana Pratap was the only Rajput ruler who did not accept Akbar as his overload. In the Battle of Haldighati in 1576, Akbar defeated Maharana Pratap, but Maharana Pratap did not surrender and continued to fight against the Mughals till his death in 1597.
Akbar discussed with the Ulama, Brahmins, priests in his prayer hall and prayer hall was called Ibadatkhana. he wanted to know about various religious beliefs and custom of the people and after his discussions with the peoples, he combined the good features of all religions into a single faith called Din-i-Llahi (Divine faith). The idea of universal peace was an important past of Dur-i-Llahi and this idea of tolerance unified people of different religious Faith.
Akbar focused on honesty justice and peace which was also a part of his policy to bring the nation together with the feeling of oneness. He has six wives but he likes to spend the time with his wife Mariam-uz-Zamani. Akbar died on 27 October 1605 at the age of aged 63 in
Fatehpur Sikri, Agra. After the death of Akbar his son, Jahangir crowned as the new Mughal Emperor.