What is Environment? Explain in Simple Words


The environment is our basic life support system to provide:

  • the water, we drink.
  • the air, we breathe.
  • the food, we eat.
  • the land, we live

Types of Environment

  • Natural Environment
  • Human Environment

Environment refers to the intersection of humans and all other living forms with the physical aspects of the earth. The natural environment can be either biotic or abiotic.
Biotic components include biological or living beings, i.e. plants, insects, animals, etc.
Abiotic components include all physical or non-living thing such as land, soil, water minerals and climate.

Types of Natural Environment

  • Lithosphere
  • Hydrosphere
  • Atmosphere
  • Biosphere



the lithosphere or the crust is the outermost solid layer of the earth. the crustal blocks of earth can be categorized as under

  • Continental crust lives below the landmass with the thickness about 40 km and 100 km.
  • oceanic crust lies below the oceans with the thickness about 6km.
  • the earth crust is made up of different types of rocks.
  • on the surface. the thin layer of soil is suitable to grow crops.
  • the surface of the earth is not even and we find different, landforms, i.e. mountains, plateaus, and plains.
  • Beneath the surface, there are important resources, i.e oil, coal, iron and natural gas.



  • The Hydrosphere refers to all forms of water on earth i.e. oceans, lakes, seas, rivers, glaciers, ice, snow water vapor etc. Water is important in our daily life ass we needed water for domestic purposes, farmers need for agricultural activities and industries need for manufacturing. The rivers and oceans are sources of food and minerals and also allow transportation of their surface



The Atmosphere is the layer of air that surrounds our earth. The atmosphere on earth helps survival as under :

  • Helps to breathe.
  • Plants obtain their supply of nitrogen and CO2.
  • The ozone layer protects us from the harmful ultraviolet rays of the sun.
  • All weather occurrences take place i.e. rain, snow etc.

The air is  a mixture of gases :

  • Nitrogen – 78%
  • Oxygen – 21%
  • CO2 – 0.6%
  • Other gases

There are five main layers in the Atmosphere

  • Troposphere
  • Stratosphere
  • Mesosphere
  • Thermosphere
  • Exosphere



  • The biosphere includes forms of all life on the earth which supports millions of plants, animals, and other small organisms. The interrelation between the realms of the natural environment takes place in the biosphere. Life is dependent on the soil of the crust, on air from the atmosphere and the heat from the sun. In the hydrosphere, the biosphere is dependent on the dissolved nutrients.
  • The balance of nature is the relationship between all parts of the biosphere to interact with each part of the biosphere to interact with each other to maintain stability and this can be easily disturbed by human activity.


  • An ecosystem is a group of plants, animals, and physical environment with which they interact i.e soil, water, rocks, etc and every element in the ecosystem interacts with other elements. Each ecosystem contains biotic and abiotic components and its health depends on the balance among its members and environment.
  • All the elements of the ecosystem are tied together by the heat and light of the sun and the weather of that region. An ecosystem might be ass small as the pond or as large as a desert. The larger ecosystem is known as a specific kind of vegetation, i.e tropical rainforests, tundra etc. In each ecosystem, the plants and animals adapt themselves to their environment.

Human Environment

human environment


Human has influenced the physical environment in two ways:

  • Positive
  • Negative
                                     Positive     Negative
  • To make buildings to live in and work.
  • Quarrying activities for minerals.
  • Construction activities.
  • Dams to provide water and hydroelectricity.
  • Urbanisation to help to live in.
  • Forests have been cleared.
  • Left gaping holes in natural resulted soil loss and landslides.
  • Landscape changed.
  • Natural wealth converted into the resource.
  • pollution



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